Fetal Alcohol Syndrome

In light of the Centers for Disease Control's very broad statements about alcohol use in women, perhaps this topic is somewhat appropriate.  Like I alluded to in the OKAP review article on embryology, there are many ocular findings associated with fetal alcohol syndrome, which are important to know, both for clinical recognition, and also for ongoing monitoring.  For further reference, the CDC has a pretty useful web portal on fetal alcohol spectrum disorders.

Embryologic Development Of The Eye

Truth be told, there is not very much detail that needs to be learned about embryology; after all, we've already learned embryology in medical school.  At the same time, there are some key embryology concepts that are very helpful to understanding ocular disease, and may also show up on test questions.  There usually seems to be at least one question that addresses embryology, and there are tons of practice questions that test your knowledge of embryology.

Causes of Leukocoria: CREAM PIGMENT

There are TONS of causes of leukocoria (white pupil).  But this can be a very important differential, as it can be the presenting sign of some sight-threatening and life-threatening conditions (most obviously retinoblastoma).  Because of its clinical importance, it is essential to be able to not only recognize what it is, but to also have a decent differential diagnosis so that you don’t miss out on any key causes when conducting a history and physical.